One of Aikibojitsu's main distinguishing characteristics is that technique is always designed and performed
with respect to the staff's fundamental vibratory waveform. Basing technical work on this waveform allows the
practitioner to take advantage of rhythmic timings and accelerations that are the very definition of optimized

Unlike traditional staff systems such as jojutsu and bojutsu, Aikibojitsu does not strictly prescribe a defined
length or diameter for the staff. Choice of staff length instead revolves around the staff's fundamental
frequency, the practitioner's height and general level of strength, and the intended use for the staff (walking
stick, a staff for practice, a staff to be used as a weapon, or a staff intended for a combination of uses.)

As a general rule, Aikibojitsu staff length ranges from a length equal to the measure of the distance between
the ground and the practitioner's sternum (roughly the length of an Aikido ‘jo’), to a length equal to the
measure of the distance between the ground and the underside of the practitioner's chin, when the
practitioner is standing.

Choice of a staff depends upon other factors as well. For Short Form and Kata work, a staff should be jo
length or a little longer. If waveform practice is the focus, a longer or somewhat more flexible staff may be

For martial applications (self-defense) a shorter staff (jo) of a hard wood like white oak is best because it
carries a higher frequency and can thus be manipulated more rapidly. White oak is very tough and won’t
break easily, and its hardness allows it to resist dings and abrasions. A jo is also good as a walking stick,
because it is not too long. An Aikido jo is fine for general purpose Aikibojitsu practice.

Staff thickness is another factor in staff choice. An overly thick staff is undesirable because it will prove to be
cumbersome and relatively inflexible. It won’t carry vibratory curvature well as the excessive thickness limits
amplitude of developing waveforms, making precision work with waveforms in practice difficult to unavailable.

On the other hand, a staff that is too thin will vibrate at an excessively low frequency and carry waveforms of
excessively high amplitude. Such a staff, although capable of clearly showing developing waveforms, has
such a low frequency that its waveforms all develop excessively slowly. Worst of all, the lack of strength in the
overly thin staff will generally cause it to be quickly broken. The same factor makes an overly thin staff
useless as a walking stick or a weapon of self-defense.

A reasonable diameter for the staff is based upon type of wood, and staff length. Probably the best range is
from 1.75 to 2.50 centimeters, but in general, as long as it is neither ‘too thin’ nor ‘too thick’, staff diameter is
somewhat a matter of preference.

Aikibojitsu is an archetypal art form that encourages people to train outside, to go on solitary walks, to hike
alone in the mountains. Thus, when considering staff length, thickness, flexibility and wood type, it is good to
remember that you are choosing a walking stick as well as a potential weapon of self-defense. A good walking
stick is about jo length, not much longer, because longer staffs tend to be too unwieldly (a longer staff will be
more difficult to fit into a car, for example.) A shorter staff (down to jo length) is a good general choice both as
a walking stick, and for the fast manipulation needed for use in self-defense.

Material is another factor to consider in staff choice. The type of wood will affect how the staff carries energy.
A wood chosen for a staff should be tough (won’t break easily) and hard (will be resistant to dings and
abrasions.)Three commonly used hardwood types are Japanese white oak (the most common jo wood),
hickory, and purple heart.

For beginning practitoners, probably the best staff (and for advanced practitioners working on staff taking
and throwing with the staff) is the common industrial broom handle. Available at janitorial supply houses
everywhere, when the ends are cut off and the cut edges lightly sanded, the result is a staff that is tough,
resilient, and best of all inexpensive. If it breaks it is not a great loss.

The main problem with industrial broom handles is that they can tend to be a little too thick and heavy. Take
the time to look through the assortment and pick a thinner one. A disadvantage of the industrial broom
handle is that it will only carry clear waveforms if thrown with real power. That isn't a big problem for beginning
practitioners when the focus is learning of the basic movement patterns of Short Forms and the katas of the
Daiki Taiyu. Start out with an industrial broom handle, and over time you will eventually come into possession
of better quality staffs that can be used for more precise waveform study.

In general, the Aikibojitsu practitioner uses a somewhat longer staff for waveform work. The increased length
of a longer staff allows waveforms to develop more slowly and with higher amplitude, making them more
visible. Skills obtained in waveform work with a longer, heavier staff, can easily be translated into the shorter
staff used in the martial interaction. The transition the other way, from shorter to longer staff, will be
considerably more difficult.

Most Aikibojitsu practitioners have a variety of staffs of different lengths and materials, each with its own
‘personality’ selected based upon the type of use intended.

Within every staff, even before it is manipulated, multiple standing waveforms of potential exist. These
potential waveforms individually and collectively are determinant of the staff's character. Standing waveforms
of potential exist within, and hold true for every staff, of any length, diameter or material.

Staff work that takes into account the staff's implicit energy patterns will best minimize energy loss, which is
key to optimization of technical movement. Work not in accord with the staff's fundamental nature inevitably
results in generation of unintended, spurious exponentials, and relatively low levels of manifested power and

The high intensity and precise focus of Aikibojitsu strikes is not solely attributable to increased effort input to
striking forms. Instead these are the result of acting in accord with the staff's resonant nature. Such strikes
would be unlikely without alignment with and foundation in the underlying wave patterns within the staff.

The dominant potential waveform in the staff is cosine. It is this vibratory structure that sets the fundamental
resonant vibrational frequency of the staff. The staff's fundamental waveform has amplitude peaks at both
ends and the middle, and amplitude minimums 1/4 of the staff's length in from either end. These amplitude
minimums are called ‘nodal positions’ in Aikibojitsu and are the two main grasping points on the staff in
Aikibojitsu staff work.

In addition to the primary waveform, Aikibojitsu makes use of the second and the third harmonic waveforms of
the staff. The second harmonic has four nodal minimums of which the two closest to the staff’s center are
defined as main grasping points in Aikibojitsu. The third harmonic has six nodal minimums of which the two
closest to staff center are (again) defined as grasping points. In all, therefore, Aikibojitsu defines a total of six
main nodal grasping points on the staff.

In addition to these six ‘nodal positions’, Aikibojitsu defines the two ends of the staff as valid grasping points.
These two grasping positions are not nodal and therefore cause the staff to change its character
significantly. A nodal grasp causes the staff to vibrate freely in a harmonic standing wave associated with the
harmonic, while the non-nodal grasping points of the staff ends cause the staff to generate and carry
‘travelling waves’, which are used in staff strikes.

When the hand takes the staff at a nodal position of the fundamental frequency, the staff vibrates freely at
the fundamental frequency. If a nodal position of the second harmonic is taken, the position dampens the
fundamental and third harmonic waveforms, but allows the staff to vibrate freely at the second harmonic. A
grasp of a nodal position associated with the third harmonic dampens the fundamental and second harmonic
waveforms but allows the staff to vibrate freely at the third harmonic.

The higher harmonics of the staff have other nodal positions, but the six described are those defined for
Aikibojitsu staff work. Thus, with the addition of the two ends, Aikibojitsu defines a total of eight grasping
positions on the staff for staff manipulation. These provide a precise focus for hand positions in the staff
manipulations of Aikibojitsu.

One might expect the middle of the staff also to be a valid grasping point, but Aikibojitsu does not define it. A
grasp of the middle of the staff causes the staff to become balanced, something undesirable in Aikibojitsu
staff work because it takes away the staff’s asymmetry, something essential to exponential energy

For a more thorough description of the staff of Aikibojitsu, see the chapter 'Technical Aikibojitsu II' in
Aikibojitsu and the Structure of Natural Law.

                    The jo is the staff of the Known, the weapon of the warrior.
                    The bo is the staff of the Unknown, the weapon of the warrior-mystic.
The Staff of Aikibojitsu
What is Aikibojitsu
Founder Tom Read
The Book
Origins of Aikibojitsu
The Staff of Aikibojitsu
The Short Forms
The Aikibojitsu Organization
Frequently Asked Questions FAQ
Schedule of Upcoming Events
Licensed Aikibojitsu Instructors
Katas of the Daiki Taiyu
Finding a Teacher
Technical Aikibojitsu
Teachers and Schedule of Events
The Aikibojitsu Organization
Ranking and Licensing
Aikibojitsu - The Art of the Staff
Frequently Asked Questions
The Store: Books, DVDs
The Heart of Aikido
Home Page
Distance Learning Program
The Store